The David Swayze
Great Lakes Shipwreck Database


The Dave Swayze Shipwreck Database was the result of collaboration between many researchers and institutions over a period of about twenty years. David Swayze coordinated the effort, pulling together verified primary source accounts of total loss Great Lakes shipwrecks from colleagues and researchers across the Lakes. These served as the basis for his book Shipwreck! published in 1999. Following the success of the book, the number of wrecks added increased exponentially after additional researchers began contributing. Mr. Swayze has turned over mangement of the database to Brendon Baillod and the Great Lakes Shipwreck Research Group who now have administrative web facilities for adding new records, updating existing records and even deleting records where necessary. The database search engine and backend database were programmed by Brendon Baillod and he maintains the data and codebase. Any comments, suggestions or questions concerning the database may be addressed to Brendon at

If you wish to join the research and administrative team, contact Brendon as above.

Listed are the abbreviation codes used for sources and contributors used for wreck information or to identify the vessel.

See further down for published and institutional sources:

CONTRIBUTORS and Private Collections:

af – Alan Fodor, Cleveland
amh – Ann Marie Hadcock, Bruce Peninsula, Ont
aohs -AuSable-Oscoda Historical Society [Fred Glass], Oscoda, Mich.
ap – Aaron Phipps, Grand Rapids Press, Grand Rapids, MI
bb – Brendon Baillod Collection and databases, Lake Michigan
brb – Brent Bamford, London, Ont.
bcha – Berrien County Historical Association (Robert C. Myers)
bs – Bob Saxton, West Springfield, PA
bt – Barb Talbot – St. Catharines, Ont
bv – Barbara Veneziano, Enterprise, Alabama
bwb – Barry Brently
cc – Chris Campbell
cpl – C. Patrick Labadie, Alpena, Mich
cr – Clive Reddin, Toronto
crx – Cal Rix, diary of Capt. D. Kendall of Algonac
cs – Carrie Sowden, Peachman Lake Erie Shipwreck Research Center Great Lakes Historical Society
csm – Craig Smith, Brighton, Ont.
dah – David Higley, Minneapolis, MN
dao – Dave Oney, North Fairfield, OH
das – Dan Scoville, Houston, TX
db – Don Boone, Collingwood, Ont.
dc – Don Comtois Collection, Bay City, MI
dcr – Doyle C. Rogers, crewman aboard str J. H. REED
df – Dan Fountain Collection
dg – David Galbraith, Hamilton, Ont.
dh – David Hamilton, Amherstburg, Ont.
dmt – David M. Teepell list, Eastern Lake Ontario wrecks – 1868-1922
dp -Dale Pohto, Mentor, Ohio
dr – Dave Reed, Port Perry, Ont.
eb – Eric Bonow
ec – Ed Chaput Collection, Rockwood, MI
ejs – Eric J. Schmitt, Mackinac City, MI
els – Elmer L. Shafer, Pepper Pike, Oh (radio operator on CG cutter OSSIPEE – 1942)
ems – Al Stender, Bay City, Mich recounting the experience of his father Elwood M. Stender
emt – Esther M. Thompson, (descendant of a victim of the loss of the tug GRACE)
ff- Francis Farrell, St. Paul, MN (crewman on HENRY STEINBRENNER)
fg – Fred Griswold, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont.
gc – Glenn Cleereman, Green Bay, Wis.
gcs – Gordon C Shaw, Thornhill, Ont.
gdr – Geoffrey D. Reynolds, Joint Archives of Holland, Hope College, Holland, Mich.
ge – Gail Elliott, Roseville, MI
gl – Gordon Lawson, Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ont.
gm – Greg McMaster – Traverse City, MI
gmw – Georgann and Mike Wachter, Avon Lake, OH Link
grm – Greg Michels, National Weather Service, Marquette, MI
go – Gerry Ouderkirk, Toronto
hh – Harvey Hadland, Bayfield, WI “Fishing Vessels of the Great Lakes”
hl – Harry Leisk
hm – Hugh McNichol, Lansing, Mich (g-grandson of a J. Reid salvage supervisor)
ja – Joe Amberik, Cleveland, OH (crewman on Black Marlin)
jad – James Donahue
jb – Joe Barr, Eastpointe, MI
jby – Jim Byrne, Toledo
jc – Joy Chesley, Bend, Oregon
jd – John Dillon, Bay View, WI
jh – Jim Hopkins – Espanola, Ont. (President, Save Ontario Shipwrecks)
jha – John Hanson, Montague, Mi – (chair of West Michigan Underwater Preserve and g-grandson of shipbuilder John Dyble)
jib – Jim Beaudoin, Algonac, Mi
jk – Jim & John Koch Collection, Cleveland, Lake Erie
jm – Jack Messmer Collection
jmb – James M. Beaudoin, Algonac, MI
jmk – Jim Kennard, Rochester, NY
jos – John M. O’Shea, Dept. of Anthropology, University of Michigan
jow – Joanna Waugh – correspondent to MARHST-L maritime discussion group
jtd – John T. Davidson, Marion, IL (son of the deckman on the salvage tug SALVOR)
jw – John Weichel, Southampton, Ont.
ke – Keith Elms, Barrington, IL
kf – Kathy Firestone, Northport, Mi, daughter of vessel owner
km – Ken MacPherson Collection – web page of Walter Lewis
kmn – Ken Merryman, Minneapolis
kst – Kimm Stabelfelt, Wauwatosa, Wis.
kvd – Derek Van Dahm, Westmont, IL
kw – Kurt Wojda
ll – Larry Lepage, Ontario
lt – Linda Talbott, National Project Coordinator, The USGenWeb Census Project
md – Michael Dodson, Lansing, Mich.
mah – Mark Hooton
mar – Martin A. Riepma, Wellington, Fla.
mbw – Matthew and Barbara Weisman, Elyria, Oh
mf – Melissa Freye, Muskegon
mh – Mary Howard, Indiana, PA
msra – Michigan Shipwreck Research Association; website
mu – Meredith Ulstad
mw – Michael Wertel, Oshkosh, WI
njs – Natalie J. Siembor, Oswego, NY
ns – Neil Schultheiss‘ Great Lakes & Seaway Shipping web site [“Boatnerd”] –
nsc – Natalie (Nordstrand) Scheller, Lowell, MI (daughter of crewman on tug LEON J.)
pc – Patricia Codney, Willoughby, OH
pac – Paul Carroll, Goderich, Ont.
paf – Patrick Frazier, grandson of a crewman on HELEN B
pal – Peggy Large, Winona, Ont.
rc – Randy Cook, Garson, Ont.
pdw – Peter D. A. Warwick, Hamilton, Ont.
pf – Peter Ferris (Forest Park, IL)
pg – Philip Gifford, St. Catharines, Ont.
phs – Pentwater (Mich.) Historical Society
ps – Peter Scurr, Ont., grandson of W. R. Taylor, Wallaceburg, Ont.
rb – Ron Beaupre, Port Elgin, Ont.
rdk – Richard D. Kendrick, Ashtabula, Oh – (son of skipper of HURLBUT W. SMITH)
rf – Rob Farrow, Thunder Bay, Ont.
rl – Ryan LeBlanc, Thunder Bay, Ont. (President, S.O.S Lake Superior)
rj – Robert Jaeck, Racine, WI
rja – Richard Janke, Wisconsin
rjo – Randy Johnson, Soo, Ont.
rkr – Ralph K. Roberts Collection
rnc – Rick Neilson Collection, Kingston, Ont.
rp – Richard Palmer Collection
rpo – Ruth Powell, Monroe, Mich
rr – Ross Richardson, Lake Ann, Mich
rrc – Ralph R. Christiansen
rwr – R. W. Rick Redmond, Medicine Hat, Alta. Can. (son of PWD-117 fireman)
rs – Robert Schwemmer, Santa Clarita, Cal.
sm – Skip Meier, Detroit Marine Hist. Soc.
sa – Steve Adolph, Dearborn, Mi
sc – Scott Cameron, Meaford, Ont.
se – Stephen B. Ellingson Collection, Andover, KS
sf – Suzanne Frantz, St. Clair, MI
sm – Shari Milks, Manitowoc, Wis.
smf – Shawn McFadden, Toronto
sn – Sandra Northrup, Niles, Mich
so – Steve Ouellette – Fenton, MI
ss – Sue Seigmund, Texas
svb – Steve Vanden Bosch
svi – Seaview Imaging (Dan & Joyce Lindsay) Brantford, Ont.
tk – Tom Kowalczk
tr – Tom Rutledge, Kingston, Ont.
tis – Tim Shippee, Baldwinsville, NY
ts – Ted Swayze, Hanover Park, Il
ww – Wallace F. Workmaster, Mount Lebanon, Pa.
waw – William A. Warnick, Hamilton, Ont.
wes – Wes Oleszewski Collection
wl – Walter Lewis Collection and web page, Kingston, Ont.
wla – William Lafferty, Dayton, Oh
wmn – William McNeil Collection
ws – William Stephan, jr., Darien, Il
wsm – William Smith, Midland, Ont.
wwl – William W. Lewis, Presque Isle, Mich.

Published sources and institutions:

(doc = document from private collection)

  • a&f – Ahoy & Farewell – J. A. Jackman, ed., Marine Historical Society of Detroit, Detroit, 1970.
  • ac – History of the Atlantic Cable & Undersea Communications:British Insulated Callenders (Submarine) Cables Ltd by Bill Glover at
  • acpl – Alpena Co. (Mich) Geo N Fletcher Public Library
  • ade – Alpena Dates of Events, 1862-1902 – published by by Alpena Argus newspaper. Alpena Public Library genealogy collection. With supplements through 1914.
  • adv – The str ADVENTURE and Kelley’s Isl…, Labadie, C. Patrick & Charles E. Herdendorf. Ohio Lake Erie Commission, Toledo, OH, 1998.
  • ae – Amhersburg Echo
  • air – Annual Insurance Reports, 1856-68 – provided by Brendon Baillod
  • atl – Around The Lakes – Detroit Dry Dock Co., Detroit, 1894. doc
  • anfs – American Naval Fighting Ships, U.S. Navy; Naval Historical Center, USGPO, Washington, 1975 .
  • asn – The History of the American Sailing Navy – Chappelle, Howard I., W.W. Norton, Bonanza Books, NY, 1949.
  • bbas – Blue Book of American Shipping – 1897,1903 –  Web page of Walter Lewis:
  • bbr – Bob Brobst, Algonac, Mich. website:
  • bc – Buffalo Commercial  Wrecklist of 1851, published Jan 9, 1852 in Milwaukee Sentinel – Robert Jaeck Collection
  • bcw – Buffalo Commercial Advocate Wrecklist of 1849, published Jan 2, 1850 – Robert Jaeck Collection
  • blu – Board of Lake Underwriters insurance loss lists – year of list may follow in parentheses. Brendon Baillod website
  • bw – Bill Wangemann, City of Sheboygan Historian 1995
  • clu – Selected Canadian Lake Underwriters lists & Lloyd’s lists – doc
  • cbt – Chicago Board of Trade Annual Reports – Google Books
  • cn – Cari Noga, Lake Micigan Shipwreck Identified, MyNorth online, Sep 1, 2011
  • csqw –Canvas and Steam on Quinte Waters – Metcalfe, Willis. South Marysburgh Marine Society, South Bay, Ont., 1979.
  • csv – Canadian Coastal and Inland Steam Vessels, 1809-1930 – Mills, John M., Steamship Historical Society of America, Providence RI, 1979 (plus three supplements). On-line at:
  • ctw – Chicago Tribune wrecklist for 1856, pub in Milwaukee Sentinel of Nov 17, 1856 – Robert Jaeck Collection
  • dap – Real Tales From the Admiralty Courts of the United States, Volume 1, the Sinking of the Schooner Northwestern,Pugh, Douglas A., Real Publications, Alpena, Mi, 2002.
  • dcd – Detroit City Directory of 1837 – online at : 
  • dm – Dive Michigan! – Harrington, Steve. Maritime Press, Mason, MI, 1990.
  • do – Dive Ontario – Kohl, Cris. Self-published. Chatham, Ont., 1995
  • dot – Department of Transportation, National Transportation Library, online
  • do2 – Dive Ontario 2 – Kohl, Cris. Self-published. Chatham, Ont., 1994.
  • eas – Encyclopaedia of American Shipwrecks – Berman, Bruce D., Mariner’s Press, Boston, 1972.
  • eb – The Wreck of the Erie Belle – Stein, C. E., Ship ‘N Shore Publishing, Wheatley, Ont., 1970.
  • edd – Early Days in Detroit – Palmer, Gen. Friend, Detroit, 1906 – digitized by Google at THIS link.
  • eh – Early American Steamers – Heyl, Eric (4 volumes)
  • eluc – Early Life in Upper Canada – Guillet, Edwin C., U. of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1963
  • es – Echo Soundings  (Amherstburg Echo) Vol. 1 Nos. 1-4, Vol. 2, No. 1-3 – Marsh Collection Society, Amherstburg, Ont., 1998-99.
  • ew – Erie Wrecks – Georgann & Michael Wachter, Corporate Impact, Avon Lake, Oh. 1997.
  • ewe- Erie Wrecks East  – Georgann & Michael Wachter, Corporate Impact, Avon Lake, Oh. 2000.
  • ewl – Erie Wrecks and Lights – Georgann & Michael Wachter, Corporate Impact, Avon Lake, Oh. 2007.
  • eww – Erie Wrecks West – Georgann & Michael Wachter, Corporate Impact, Avon Lake, Oh. 2001.
  • fk – “Fool Killer”: The Great Lakes’ First Submarine – Harris, Partricia A. G. , Michigan City Historical Society, Michigan City, Ind, 1982.
  • ftgl – Fish Tugs of the Greatest Lake – Hadland, Harvey and Bob Mckreth :
  • g8s – Guardians of the 8th Sea – O’Brien, T. M. , USCG Public Relations, Washington, 1976.
  • glc – The Great Lakes Car Ferries – Hilton, George W., Howell-North, Berkeley, CA, 1962 – op
  • gld – Green’s Marine Directory of the Great Lakes, 1916 – Green, Fred L. (from Walter Lewis’ Webpage: )
  • glmd – Great Lakes Maritime Database – online from University of Michigan digital archives:
  •  glswr – Great Lakes Ships We Remember-Van Der Linden, Peter, ed., Freshwater Press, Cleveland, 1979
  • globe – List of 1866 casualties from Jan 25, 1867 Toronto Globe  – doc
  • glp – Great Lakes Pilot – U.S. Lake Survey, Corps of Engineers, U. S Army, Detroit, 1970.
  • glss – Great Lakes Shipwrecks and Survivals – Ratigan, William – Eerdmann’s Publishing, Grand Rapids, MI, 1960 (still in print: Freshwater Press, Cleveland)
  • gn – Google News – on-line reproduction of newspapers of the past.
  • gs – Great Stories of the Great Lakes – Boyer, Dwight. Dodd, Mead & Co., New York, 1966
  • gsg – Ghost Ships, Gales and Forgotten Tales – Olesczewski, Wes. Avery Color Studios, Marquette, MI, 1995.
  • gsgl – Ghost Stories of the Great Lakes – Boyer, Dwight. Dodd, Mead & Co., New York, 1968
  • gwgl – Great Wrecks of the Great Lake – Stonehouse, Frederick. Harboridge Press, Marquette, 1973.
  • h – Directory of Shipwrecks of the Great Lakes – Heden, Karl E. Boston, Bruce Humphries Publications, 1966 [also 1993 edition].
  • hcgl – Historical Collections of the Great Lakes – Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH Robert Graham, curator Link
  • hdm – History of Detroit and Michigan – Farmer, Silas, S. Farmer & Co., Detroit, 1884. op
  • hgl – History of the Great Lakes – Mansfield, John Brant, J. H. Beers, Chicago, 1899 – op
  • hmc – Short History of Marine City – McElroy, Frank (ed. by Gareth McNab) Marine City Rotary Club, Marine City (Michigan), 1980.
  • hr – Herman Runge Collection, Milwaukee Public Library. Search engine:
  • hsm – Historical Society of Michigan Chronicle on-line magazine of the Michigan Historical Society, available at:
  • irs – Isle Royale Shipwrecks – Stonehouse, Frederick. Avery Color Studios, AuTrain, MI, 1977.
  • is – Inland Seas (vol. & number may follow), The Great Lakes Historical Society, Cleveland/Vermilion, OH, 1945 – pres.
  • iwm – Ice Water Museum – Oleszewski, Wes. Avery Color Studios, Marquette, MI, 1993.
  • jaq – Joint Archives Quarterly, Hope College, Holland, MI – online
  • krm – Ken R. McPherson – “List of  Vessels Employed in British Naval Service of the Great Lakes, 1755-1875” Web page  of Walter Lewis
  • ks– Keweenaw Shipwrecks – Stonehouse, Frederick. Avery Color Studios, AuTrain, MI, 1988.
  • ld – Lighthouse Digest webpage,, referred by Stephen Carter, Port Elgin, Ont.
  • le – Lake Erie – Hatcher, Harlan. American Lakes Series, Bobbs-Merrill, 1944. – op
  • ledc  – Lake Erie Dive Chart – Ackerman, Paul W., ed. Midwest Explorer’s League, 1985
  • lh – Lake Huron – Quaife, Milo M. American Lakes Series, Bobbs-Merrill, New York, 1944. – op
  • lhdc – Lake Huron Dive Chart – Ackerman, Paul W., ed. Midwest Explorer’s League, 1986
  • lhl – Merchant Steam Vessels of the U.S. – the “Lytle & Holdcamper List” w/supplements. Steamship Historical Society of  America, Inc., Staten Isl. NY, 1975.
  • lm – Lake Michigan – Landon, Fred American Lakes Series, Bobbs-Merrill, New York, 1944. – op
  • lmdc – Lake Michigan Dive Chart – Ackerman, Paul W., ed. Midwest Explorer’s League, 1987
  • lo- Lake Ontario – Pound, Arthur. American Lakes Series, Bobbs-Merrill, New York, 1944. – op
  • lol – Lore of the Lakes – Bowen, Dana, self-published, Daytona Beach, FL, 1940 (still in print: Freshwater Press, Cleveland)
  • lotl – Lost on the Lakes: Shipwrecks of Berrien County, Michigan –  Myers, Robert C., Andrews University Press, Berrien Springs, MI, 2003.
  • ls – Lake Superior – Nute, Grace Lee. American Lakes Series, Bobbs-Merrill, New York, 1944. – op
  • lsdc – Lake Superior Dive Chart – Ackerman, Paul W., ed. Midwest Explorer’s League, 1988
  • lsp – Long Ships Passing – Havighurst, Walter. New York, McMillan & Co. 1942
  • lss – Lake Superior Shipwrecks – Wolff, Julius.
  • lssc – Lake Superior’s Shipwreck Coast – Stonehouse, Frederick. Avery Color Studios, AuTrain, MI, 1986.
  • mdgp – Michigan Digital Government Publications, Library of Michigan, Lansing
  • mdwl – Marine Disasters on the Western Lakes during 1869 – Capt. J. W. Hall (from Walter Lewis webpage:
  • mh – Michigan History Magazine – Bureau of History, Mich Dept. of State, Lansing.
  • m&h – Mysteries & Histories – Oleszewski, Wes, Avery Color Studios, Marquette, MI, 1997
  • mjd – The Mind of James Donahue – website with random Great Lakes stories :
  • mis – Mike Spears, Drummond Isl. Chamber of Commerce (
  • mjs – Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel (newspaper)
  • mmgl – Marine Museum of the Great Lakes Registry List  – Web page at:
  • mmo – History of Manistee, Mason and Oceana Counties (Michigan). H. R. Page, 1882 (reprint)
  • mnhs – Minnesota Historical Society,
  • modoc – MODOC WHISTLE – Journal of the Saginaw River Marine Hist. Soc., Bay City, MI – 1991-Present
  • mol – Memories of the Lakes – Bowen, Dana T. Self-published, Daytona Bch, Fla., 1946. (still in print, Freshwater Press)
  • mpl – Milwaukee Public Library Great Lakes Marine Collection (including Runge file summaries) – Web page at:
  • mqs – Marquette Shipwrecks – Stonehouse, Frederick. Harboridge Press, Marquette, 1974.
  • mr – Marine Record/Review – published Cleveland 1878-192x. Available at wl or
  • ms – Munising Shipwrecks – Stonehouse, Frederick. Avery Color Studios, AuTrain, MI 1980
  • mv,mvus – Merchant Vessels of the U.S.- U. S. Dept. of Treasury, Steamboat Inspection Service, etc. –doc – (most op)
  • NAC – National Archives of Canada – Web page at:
  • net – various internet sources – hard copies are in my clipping file
  • ns1 thru ns5 – Namesakes series, Greenwood, John O. (ascending from 1900-09 volume) Freshwater Press, Cleveland, 1975-87
  • nsp – my newspaper clipping  file [clippings mostly from Detroit Free Press and Detroit Post and Tribune]
  • ofpc – Old Fulton NY Post Cards on-line collection (newspaper archive) –
  • oo – OurOntario Community Newspapers Collection – on line at
  • osdo – Old Shipping Days in Oswego – Finn, Leo. Oswego, NY – op
  • phr – notes from Port Huron Custom House Registrations by Richard Wright – Ralph Roberts Collection – doc
  • polk – Polk’s Great Lakes Marine Directory – 1883 – R.L. Polk & Co., Chicago, 1884. – op
  • ppm – Past and Present of Macomb County – Eldredge, R. F., Clark & Co, Chicago, 1905 – op
  • pss- By Paddlewheel, Sail & Steam – Fisher, M. C.  self-published, 1991.
  • rep – Writings of R.E. Prescott – Alcona County Herald, Lincoln, MI, 1934.
  • rsh – Red Stacks Over the Horizon – Elliott, J. L., Eerdmanns, Grand Rapids, MI, 1967.
  • rsl – Register of Ships of the Lakes and River St. Lawrence, 1864 – (from Walter Lewis webpage:
  • rso – Reports of the Chief Signal Officer – Congressional Signal Set, Library of Congress
  • – The Salvager – Doner, Mary F. Ross & Haines, Minneapolis, 1958.
  • sagl – Strange Adventures of the Great Lakes – Boyer, Dwight. Dodd, Mead & Co., New York, 1974
  • sb – Wreck list of SEABOARD magazine of Jun 16, 1892, showing wrecks of 1886-91
  • sca – Scanner, Monthly News Bulletin of the Toronto Marine Historical Society, Toronto.
  • sgr – Story of Grand Rapids – Lydens, Z. Z., ed. Kregel Pub., Grand Rapids, 1966.
  • sgl – Ships of the Great Lakes – Barry, J. T., Howell-North, Berkely, CA, 1976
  • sii – Steamboats in Ice – Donahue, James. Anchor Publications, Cass City, MI, 1995.
  • sip – Schooners in Peril – Donahue, James. Anchor Publications, Cass City, MI. 1995.
  • sir – Canadian Steamboat inspection Reports – Board of Steamboat Inspection. Various years
  • ski – Profiles of Shipwrecks in the Vicinity of Kelley’s Island, Lake Erie, Herdendorf, E. and L. Pansing, GLHS, unpublished ms.
  • slh – Shipwrecks of Lake Huron – Parker, Jack. Avery Color Studios, AuTrain, MI, 1986.
  • sls – Shipwrecks of Lake Superior – Wolff, Julius. Lake Superior Marine Museum Assoc., Duluth, MN, 1979.  (older version of lss (see above))
  • smgl – Ships and Men of the Great Lakes – Boyer, Dwight. Dodd, Mead & Co., New York, 1977 (still in print: Freshwater Press)
  • swn – Ship Wrecks of the Niagara Frontier
  • sol – Shipwrecks of the Lakes – Bowen, Dana. Self-published, Daytona Beach, Fla, 1952. (still in print: Freshwater Press)
  • sots – Shipwrecks of the Saugeen – Partick Folkes, 1970
  • sound – Sounds of Disaster – Oleszewski, Wes. Avery Color Studios, Marquette, MI, 1993.
  • soundings – Soundings: Journal of the Wisc. Marine Hist. Soc.:
  • ssa – Shipwrecks of the Saugatuck Areas – Lane, Kit. Saugatuck Commecial Record, Saugatuck, MI, 1974.
  • ssb – Shipwrecks of the Sleeping Bear – Harold, Steve. Pioneer Study Center, Traverse City, MI, 1984.
  • ssm – Shipwrecks of the Straits of Mackinac – Feltner, Chuck & Jeri, Seajay Publications, Dearborn, MI, 1991
  • ssnr – A Century of Steam and Sail on the Niagara River, Cumberland, Barlow. Musson Book Co. , Toronto,  1913 – op
  • st – Shipwreck Tales – Kohl, Cris. Self-published. Chatham, Ont., 1987.
  • stb – Shipwrecks of Thunder Bay – Stonehouse, Frederick. B & J Watery World, Alpena, MI, 1986.
  • sv – A Signal Victory – David Skaggs and Gerald Althoff, Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, MD, 1997
  • sy – “Gertie’s Resting Place Remains a Mystery.” Steve Yablonski. Oswego County Today. 2011
  • tbmd – Thunder Bay Marine Sanctuary Collection, Alpena Public Library – on line at  –  dead link
  • tls – The Lightship – Lake Huron Lore Maine Society, Port Huron, Mich
  • tm – The History of the Late War in North-America – Mante, Thomas. London, 1772. Richard Palmer Collection
  • tol – “Tonnage of the Lakes”, article in U. S. Nautical Magazine and Naval Journal,  New York, Vol IV, pp. 459-63, 1855-6
  • tsbc – Travel Safety Board of Canada web page – wreck reports 1991-2001,
  • ttgl – True Tales of the Great Lakes – Boyer, Dwight, Freshwater Press, Cleveland, 1971.
  • vbs – Vessels Built on the Saginaw – Dave Swayze, Ralph Roberts & Don Comtois, Saginaw River Marine Historical Society, Bay City MI, 1994.
  • umr – Board of Marine Underwriters Marine Register – 1861. Jack Messmer Collection.
  • usls – United States Lifesaving Service annual reports – doc (mostly supplied to me by Wes Oleszewski)
  • ussn – American Sailing Navy – Chapelle, Howard I. Bonanza Books, NY, 1949.
  • wa – The Wreck of the Asia – Robert Higgins, Escart Press, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ont. 1995
  • wb – U.S. Weather Bureau Reports – doc
  • wbm – U.S. Weather Bureau annotated maps – doc
  • wf – A Voyage Into History With the CYPRUS, William Forsythe, Fairport, NY, self-published
  • whs – Wisconsin Historical Society Shipwreck Database
  • win – Shipping Casualties on the Great Lakes – Winkelmann, A.
  • wgts – Wild Gales and Tattered Sails – Creviere, Paul.J, Jr., self-published, 1997
  • wl – Walter Lewis Collection and web page, Kingston, Ont.:
  • wls – Fathoms Deep But Not Forgotten: Wisconsin’s Lost Ships – Brendon Baillod, Wisconsin Underwater Archaelogy Assoc. 2010
  • wm – Went Missing – Stonehouse, Frederick. Avery Color Studios, AuTrain, MI, 1977.
  • wmhs – Wisconsin Marine Historical Society Enrollment List:
  • wssa – The Wreck of the S. S. Alexandria, Canadian Archeological Divers Assn, Toronto, 1967
  • ww2 – U.S. Merchant Vessel War Casualties of World War II.  Robert M. Browning, Jr.   Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1996.
  • www – In the Wake of the Walk in the Water – Wendt, Gordon. Self-published, Sandusky, OH, 1984.


The Great Lakes Shipwreck Database contains over 5000 records of verified total losses of Great Lakes commercial vessels. It is available as a flat file listing at David Swayze's website which is no longer maintained or updated.